Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells


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Its coverage spans from general principles and theoretical concepts to material preparation and measurements; thermoelectric materials; thermoelements, modules, and devices; and thermoelectric systems and applications. The edition of an Introduction to Thermoelectricity is the latest update on work by Professor Julian Goldsmid. This second edition is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of thermoelectric energy conversion. It covers both theory and practice. The book is timely as it refers to the many improvements that have come about in the last few years through the use of nanostructures.

The concept of semiconductor thermoelements led to major advances during the second half of the twentieth century, making Peltier refrigeration a widely used technique. The latest materials herald thermoelectric generation as the preferred technique for exploiting low-grade heat.

The book shows how progress has been made by increasing the thermal resistivity of the lattice until it is almost as large as it is for glass. It points the way towards the attainment of similar improvements in the electronic parameters. It does not neglect practical considerations, such as the desirability of making thermocouples from inexpensive and environmentally acceptable materials.

The second edition was extended to also include recent advances in thermoelectric energy conversion, particularly the production of bulk nanostructures, new materials with higher thermoelectric figures to use the possibility of large scale thermoelectric generation, as part of the worldwide strategy for making better use of energy resources. This book guides the newcomer towards the state of the art and shows the principles for further advancement to those who are already familiar with the subject. The author has been able to draw on his long experience to cover the science and technology in a balanced way while drawing on the expertise of others who have made major contributions to the field.

This book provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals and current state of the art in thermoelectrics.


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Addressing an audience of materials scientists and engineers, the book covers theory, materials selection, and applications, with a wide variety of case studies reflecting the most up-to-date research approaches from the past decade, from single crystal to polycrystalline form and from bulk to thin films to nano dimensions. The world is facing major challenges for finding alternate energy sources that can satisfy the increasing demand for energy consumption while preserving the environment.

The field of thermoelectrics has long been recognized as a potential and ideal source of clean energy. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has prevented their utility on a large scale. While addressing the need for thermal management in materials, device components, and systems, thermoelectrics provides a fundamental solution to waste heat recovery and temperature control. Solar energy is a renewable energy heat source freely and widely available everywhere worldwide and throughout the year. Solar applications can be classified under the headings of solar thermal or solar photovoltaic PV.

Numerous texts are available on the subject of solar energy [ 1 , 2 ]. Heat pipes HPs are very effective and passive heat transfer devices that are capable of transferring large amounts of heat through long distances with small temperature differences between the heat source and the heat sink.

A HP consists of a sealed copper pipe, vacuumed and filled with a certain amount of working fluid. There are three distinct sections in the pipe. The evaporator section is separated from the condenser section by a short adiabatic section. Heat applied over the evaporator section of the pipe causes the fluid to boil internally and vaporize, picking up latent heat of vaporization. The vapor travels inside the sealed pipe to the condenser section where it condenses, giving up its latent heat of condensation.

The condensate is then transported back to the evaporator section either by gravity or via internally incorporated wicks. Heat is thus transferred from the evaporator to the condenser section of the pipe. Comprehensive overviews of HPs can be found in References [ 3 — 6 ]. Thermoelectric TE is the direct conversion of a temperature difference imposed between the junctions of two dissimilar materials to electricity.

This is known as the Seebeck effect and attributed to Thomas Seebeck in the nineteenth century. Later, Peltier showed that the converse is true. By imposing a voltage across or passing a current through two dissimilar materials, a temperature gradient is created between them. A hot surface in contact with the cold junction of the TE will be cooled down and vice versa , a cold surface in contact with the hot junction will be heated up.

Some useful references could be found in References [ 7 , 8 ]. The latter presented a survey of solar-based driven TE technologies and their applications for refrigeration and power generation. They stated that although they could be used in a wide variety of fields, they can only be used in limited applications such as aerospace, military or cases where cost is not of consideration due to their low coefficient of performance COP. Chen [ 12 ] considered a thermodynamic model to include four irreversibilities used to investigate the optimal performance of a solar-driven TE generator and presented some general performance characteristics in order to lay a foundation for further investigations into the system.

Chen et al. Their predictions suggested that output power of the TEG increases with solar concentration and that water cooling of the TEG system was preferred. Saidur et al. Dai et al. The refrigerator was driven by 0. Zhang et al.


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They presented a theoretical model to predict the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the system based on thermodynamic heat and energy balance. Their pilot experiment generated 0. The electrical output of the hybrid system could be increased by employing more TE modules such as by wrapping the cylindrical end of the HP with cylindrical-shaped TE modules or by shrouding the cylindrical end with multi-faceted surfaces machined on it to which flat TE modules could be attached.

They considered heating up a block of aluminum by reflecting solar energy onto it using plane solar concentrators. The hot solar heated block is then used to provide the hot junction of a TE module. Lesage et al. In their first experiment, they determined the performance of commercially available Bi 2 Te 3 modules under electrical heating on one surface and forced air cooling on the other side for power production.

They concluded that load matching did not coincide with peak power production similar to what He [ 20 ] found. Rockendorf et al. Xiao et al. Their result showed that a total conversion efficiency of From the literature review, it can be seen that the thermal efficiency of the SHPTE hybrid is comparable with and not much lower than that obtained with the present application of the ETHPSC for solar water heating. However, its electrical efficiency is low, about less than a few percent.

At the present moment, because TE modules are quite expensive, the hybrid system does not seem to be commercially attractive although solar energy is free. Future research studies are encouraged to develop new TE materials in order to reduce the cost of TE modules. Studies are also required to determine the performance of employing stacked TE modules. In line with this, system design involving incorporating TE and heat sinks needs to be developed further to improve the total conversion efficiency. Very little work has been carried out to determine the system performance based on actual weather condition.

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More works need to be carried out based on actual operating weather conditions. From the literature survey conducted, it could be seen that there has been very little research carried out on the simulation and experimental performance of the SHPTE hybrid under actual weather conditions for simultaneous power generation and hot water production. Further investigations are encouraged to be carried out as the evacuated HP solar collector, TE modules and heat sinks are readily and commercially available.

Such systems offer small, mobile, transportable and off-grid power and heating systems. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.


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Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells

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