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Neck Band - 18" Currently Unavailable. R opei Ring. This appendix describes the relationship between the gazetteers in these 78 pairs, in the hope that it will enable researchers to quickly decide which edition to consult first and inform them of differences early on in the course of their study.
Two pairs are two different gazetteers written independently on the same location. ZFC 4, on the other hand, is a copy of a work printed in ZFC consists of an introduction followed 53 Much of the detailed comparison between the collections was carried out in spring by Mrs. Lin Xiuli: her help is acknowledged and deeply appreciated. It is not a complete gazetteer, but the draft for a later, probably never realized, edition. It is not divided into chapters. In ten gazetteer pairs, one of the two is a manuscript copy, usually a transcription from a print, and the other is a printed edition.
The text is often identical, allowing for minor mistakes and omissions usually in the manuscript. The date given is usually taken from the preface. Where the same date is given for manuscript and print, the date in the manuscript might simply be copying the date of the print: it is not to be confused with the actual date of the transcription. Further research on the relationship between the two editions is needed in almost every case. There are good reasons for this: usually the print copy is better proofed and provides a more reliable and readable text. When the woodblocks had been lost and no new print copies could be 55 ZFC was done from a copy in which three missing chapters ch.
Chapters and the introduction are identical with ZFSH Buddhist Temple Gazetteers, Their Prefaces and Their Relationship to the Buddhist Canon 81 ordered, a scholar might transcribe or excerpt a gazetteer, or hire someone to do so. Transcription, however, almost always introduces errors. The correct print version ZFSH , p. Generally, in the case of the ten gazetteer pairs above the print versions are to be preferred, but there are exceptions. ZFC Wujin Two different editions, each completed at around the same time. Against this the ZFC edition consists of only six chapters.
The editions contain different maps. ZFC, pp. ZFC Ch. ZFSH Ch. Lay-out and calligraphy are different, therefore the woodblocks must have been re-cut. ZFC Hang zhou shang tian zhu jiang si zhi 3. Probably the ZFSH reflects the lay-out of the temple as it was rebuilt after the destruction during the Taiping. ZFC, p. References Bingenheimer, Marcus. Journal of Global Buddhism Bol, Peter K. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 61 1 Brook, Timothy. Geographical Sources of Ming-Qing History. Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan monographs in Chinese Studies 58, First edition Dow, Francis D.
Canberra: Australia National University. Dudbrigde, Glenn.
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Lost Books of Mediaval China. London: The British Library. Eberhard, Wolfram. Monumenta Serica Franke, Otto. Berlin: De Gruyter. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Jahrg. Klasse Nr. Franke, Wolfgang. An Introduction to the Sources of Ming History. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. Hu, Suh Giles, Lionel. Goodrich, L. A Dictionary of Ming Biography. Hahn, Thomas H. Unpublished PhD-thesis Heidelberg University.
Hargett, James M. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 56 2 Hu, Suh aka Hu, Shi. Notes on Dr. Naquin, Susan; Rawski, Evelyn S. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press. Unpublished conference paper. Reiter, Florian.
PhD dissertation, Munich, Reiter, Florian. Robson, James. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Wu, Jiang.
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Asia Major Third Series 17 2 : East Asian History Ming Buddhism. The Cambridge History of China. Zhang, Dewei. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju. One of the many differences between printed editions of texts and digital editions is the open-endedness of the latter, which means that it can be done incrementally and updated without incurring substantial expenses. The medium of digital editions requires the creator to make many assumptions about the texts explicit and record them in a way that can be processed automatically. This is a new concept, which seems foreign to the agenda of a scholar whose ultimate aim is to engage with the text.
This article demonstrates that what seems like a detour is actually advancing the understanding of the text and the need objectify a text in this gives access to new dimensions of a text. It then goes on to provide details of a conceptual model for describing a premodern text digitally that has been developed working on a digital edition of the early Qing Daoist collection Daozang jiyao. Keywords: Text Encoding, Digital Editions, Character Encoding, XML, Doaist Studies 1 I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for this journal for their very helpful suggestions for clarifications and general improvement of the article.
In contrast to this, any text stored digitally, in whatever format, has to be rendered to the screen or paper by correctly interpreting decoding the values of 0 and 1 that have been used to prepare encode the text. Without this correct interpretation, the result of the decoding will be just illegible garbage that does not make any sense whatsoever. In order to make this decoding successful, the model, according to which the encoding was done, has to be known at the time of the decoding.
Even more importantly, as is true for any digital format, the encoding of text into digital format can not be done without a model of the text. The activity of developing and enhancing a model of the text thus becomes a crucial, foundational activity, laying the groundwork for the actual digitization of texts themselves. The first fundamental decision that has to be made when devising such a model is to whether to treat the text either just as a series of symbols or as a two-dimensional array of spots of different color spread out over a flat surface.
Descendants of the first type of model would lead to a transcribed version of a text an example of a page is shown in Figure 1 , while those of the second type of model would be some kind of facsimile representation of the text, these will be called digital facsimile see Figure 2. None of these representations is intrinsically superior to the other; they do in fact very nicely complement each other. This requires a reading of the text and is thus always also an interpretation of the text. While the transcription of a text as a series of symbols is comparatively straightforward in most alphabetical languages, the logographic languages of East-Asia pose specific problems, since exactly this transcription is not a given, but is open to various interpretations and in fact has to be considered part of the research question.
It thus needs a model that allows to make these interpretations transparent instead of hiding them in the transcription process, which takes place before the text even gets to the reader. This paper will discuss models used for such a representation and proposes a new working model specific for premodern Chinese text. It might be tempting to try to avoid the whole issue of legacy character encoding and try to come up with a completely different way to encode characters. One such attempt is 2 the CHISE project , which tries to build a whole ontology of characters and character information.
In the model discussed here, the encoding is based on Unicode, but an intermediate layer of dereference is introduced as explained below. In the practice of transcribing primary sources, there is an additional complication through the fact that there might be more than one witness for a text and therefore a collation and analysis of textual variants in other text witnesses might be required. The model will have to be able to account for this. One last requirement is that it has to be possible to establish and maintain a normalized version of the text in addition to establishing a copy text faithful to the original.
Preliminaries and Prerequisites Before starting to describe the proposed new model, some preliminaries and basic assumptions have to be discussed. This involves a very brief description of the model most widely used for transcribing primary sources, but will also involve a brief discussion of the writing system for Chinese and how its basic properties have been reflected in today's most widely used character encoding, Unicode. While this provides a powerful model to deal with many aspects of a text and allows the definition of sophisticated vocabularies, there are a few problems that are hard to solve using this model.
One of these problems is that digital texts do in fact require different hierarchical views, depending on the purpose of the creation and the intended processing of the text. There are several ways the TEI attempts to solve this problem, one of them being considering one of the hierarchies in a document as the primary hierarchy Guidelines, Textual features that do not nest cleanly into this hierarchy are then arbitrarily split into two or more parts.
And then introducing additional notions, that can be used for example to virtually join elements together, which have been arbitrarily split within the primary hierarchy.
Another way to overcome this problem is by using elements without text content to indicate points in a text, at which features of the 'other' hierarchy starts. A classic example for this is the use of milestones in TEI. Since the main hierarchy of a TEI document is constructed using elements that describe the semantic content of the document e.
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Pages and columns and lines; these are all generalized into the concept of 'milestones' are thus only indicated by marking the point in the text flow where a new page begins. This makes it possible to work with both hierarchies at the same time, but there is a tradeoff: It prioritizes one hierarchy, thus making it considerably more difficult to retrieve the content of a page, as opposed to the content of, e.
The earliest of these texts are nearly years old. If text encoding is seen as a process of gaining insight and enhancing the understanding of a text, this will be a circular process that adds more information in several passes through the text. What this means is that the sophistication of the TEI model, while serving the needs of text encoders well in providing the expressive power to encode the features observed in a text, it puts an enormous burden on text encoders, wishing to employ the system for their texts. This seems to be especially true for premodern Chinese texts, where not only the writing system poses additional difficulties, but there is also usually no indication of paragraph or sentence boundaries, punctuation; the only given is the text as it is divided into 'scrolls', pages and lines.
For the purpose of this model then, the main hierarchy in the document is that of the physical representation of the text on the text bearing surface of the witness that is serving as the source for digitization. As the encoding of the text progresses, markers of the points of change in the content hierarchy are inserted, thus gradually bringing this other hierarchy into existence. In some ways this is thus an inversion of the relationship between these hierarchies as they exist in the TEI model. The following discussion will be targeted at requirements of Chinese text and no claims are made about usefulness in other areas.
The model described in this paper is not intended as a replacement for the TEI text model, but rather as a heuristic, methodological model that allows the creation of a sophisticated text, most likely as the childhood of a text that will prepare it to spend its adult life in a TEI environment. Writing System The main difficulty with encoding Chinese texts lies in the writing system.
Over thousands of years, the script used to write Chinese texts has evolved and has seen many changes in conventions, styles and character usage. The result is thus a rich and deep cultural heritage, which engraves in the writing system memories of a people that values history and memory in a way few others do, resulting in a writing system that contains an 6 open ended, unknown number of distinct characters. Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been attempts at dealing with this problem from a practical side, by limiting the use of characters in daily life and thus making it possible for the first time to enable more than a tiny elite to acquire enough knowledge of the writing system to participate in a modern society based on the written word, be it application forms, contracts, newspapers or novels.
We will return to this question. Digital Editions of Premodern Chinese Texts The last incarnation of the Unicode character set provides almost Chinese 7 characters. In this case also the definition of what has to be considered a separate character changed significantly during the process of defining these, which has been 8 going on more than 20 years. Although there are now assigned code-points for all characters in daily use and even most rare characters that appear in historical sources, there are still problems with the character encoding that are intrinsic to the way it is defined and evolved over the years of 9 its development: unwanted unification and unwanted separation of characters.
This makes it impossible to refer to just one of the character shapes as opposed to 10 the other character shapes also defined with a given code-point in a universal way. Another reason for this is the 'code separation rule' which meant that characters already encoded separately in one of the character encodings that formed the source of Unicode, these had to be treated separately. While these are annoying problems when dealing with Unicode, it is clear that the advantages of using a universal encoding for all texts far outnumber the problems mentioned here.
The strategy adopted here is thus not the development or use of a 7 With the release of Unicode 6. Modern font technology also allows fonts to contain several character shapes for one codepoint and allow a rendering program to select them as needed. There is however no standardized way to do so across applications. This will be achieved through a character database and the definition of additional private characters where necessary. The Process of Encoding a Character It might be useful here to look a bit more carefully into what exactly happens in the process of encoding a character, that is transcribing a character from a source text to its digital equivalent.
In an encoded character set, each character that has been assigned to a code-point can be seen as a kind of platonic, ideal character that stands for any number of real-world, existing character shapes glyphs , as we see them on a text bearing surface. However, it is impossible to design such an encoded character set in a way that each platonic character is only represented once, since it is in many cases impossible to unambiguously assign one specific glyph shape to only one character, since it is not only the shape, but also meaning and sound that contribute to this assignment and all of these might be dependent on the specifics of area and era as additional conditionals.
The result is thus that a given glyph can be logically represented in several sets. In such a situation, the process of assigning a character code to a given glyph has to look for the set of glyphs that as a whole most closely resemble the given glyph, or, to put it differently, to look for the most specific representation of a given character.
The first option makes the assumption G has been recognized as in principle belonging to the set of glyphs represented by C, which assumes knowledge of G and of the set of allowed representatives for C. Since the set of allowed representatives for C is an open set, which is not defined exhaustively in the relevant standards, but only by giving a sample of such representatives, this decision has to be made case by case and can not be 13 generalized.
The second option does not require any knowledge of the character beyond 13 Text encoding is in this respect more of an art than an exact science in that many decisions depend on the encoder. This can and should be made less arbitrary than this sounds by recognizing this fact and define a policy as to what exactly should the set of represented glyphs be. The first step to this could be for example to use a specific reference font and define what kinds of deviation from the glyphs used in this font are allowable. It would therefore be wise to provide also a way to add such information together with the character.
Different types of such relations have to be distinguished. On the one hand, characters can be seen as mere variants of each other, serving essentially as a replacement for each other. More often, however, such a relationship covers only part of the semantic field of a given character, which makes it necessary to allow for a character to belong to different groups of variant characters, depending on 14 which aspect of its meaning is called upon. In other cases, the relationship might be due to a phonetic replacement or even error. Dictionaries and commentaries have for a long time collected such information, which has to be taken into account.
This type of relationship could be called a generic relationship, which is true for all characters in this set, thus it is a relationship to use a technical term on the level of the class of characters, not the instances. While this might not seem necessary for a pure diplomatic transcription of a text, it is necessary to do proper searches and other text analytic tasks. Without this the value of a transcribed version is not much more than a digital facsimile.
Between these two types of relationships, the one completely generic and the other completely tied to the specific instance, it might well be useful to generalize from the instance-specific relationships to relationships that are relevant for the whole text, text corpus or text collection, thus forming a third type of relationship of which could exist a number of sub-types depending on the scope.
A New Model for Encoding Chinese Primary Sources In this paper, a new model is presented, together with a description of an implementation that acts on the model. The model again is described in two parts that are complementing each other, that is 1 a representation of the text and 2 a database of characters. Representation of the Text With respect to the character encoding, the main problem for premodern Chinese texts is that there is a friction between the modern usage, as reflected in the encoding systems available for digital texts, and the characters as they are used in a source text.
In order to learn more about the writing system, and better understand the development of character forms and usages, one ideally should not have to rely on modern encoding systems for premodern texts, since they tend to hide exactly the differences that are the object of such a study, but if we are to transcribe the texts digitally, there is in fact hardly another way then to use such a modern encoding system.
The only realistic way out is to give up on using character encoding as the only trace of the characters from the written source. This is however not easily achieved, since due to the way text encoding is done at the moment, the character encoding is a given, on which the layer of markup is built. Although there is some support, for example in TEI P5 to reach down into the encoding layer and introduce additional characters through markup, this mechanism is not flexible enough for cases, where the research questions involve investigation of the writing system itself.
The reason character encoding is performed is that this opens the way to computationally simply deal with the symbols encoded and abstract from the idiosyncrasics of the actual written characters. In alphabetical languages, this is very seldom problematic and even for logographic languages, this is only problematic where fundamental questions about the characters themselves need to be answered. On the other side, if character encoding does not provide the stable framework on which the following interpretative layers can be built, something else has to take its place.
Digital Editions of Premodern Chinese Texts The fundamental difference with respect to character encoding in the model proposed here is that first and foremost the location of a position in the text is recorded. Only in a second step is this position than associated with an encoded character that might 15 provisionally serve to represent it. The model proposed here takes one representative edition of a text as a reference edition for digital encoding. This text is seen for the purpose of this model as a sequence of pages or scrolls or other writing surfaces , which contain a sequence of lines, and the lines again containing a sequence of characters.
While there is a provisional transcription into encoded characters, these encoded characters are considered to be preliminary and serve mainly as placeholders to mark slots for the positions in the text they fill. The characters used might be replaced by others or further annotated and linked to.
The encoding is considered to be mainly positional that is, identifying a character at a specific position in a text , rather than mainly symbolic i. In addition to the transcribed text of the reference edition, there are additional layers of text, that might contain characters as they are found on other witnesses of the text, or for example a regularized form that reflects modern usage. These layers are considered to be linked positionally through the sequential numbers of the pages, lines and characters See Figure 5.
In addition to these transcribed layers, a digital facsimile of the reference edition is linked to each page. If necessary, a cutout from this digital can be linked to the characters on this position, thus providing a connection between these two different representations of the text.
The model also allows for the possibility of linking a digital facsimile of other editions with possible 17 different page arrangement to the reference edition. The provisional encoding is by no means the only or final encoding that should be used, its main purpose is simply to occupy the position and show a representative that might stand for the character used at that position. Closer examination of this and other similar characters might bring up other possible candidates.
The transcription of the text is not seen just as a precondition for dealing computationally with the text, but is in itself a means to acquire better understanding of the writing system used to write the text and ultimately the content of the text. To gain an increasingly detailed understanding of the text, a kind of hermeneutical circle has to be performed, consisting of several steps to be performed in sequence.
Through the performing of several loops of proofreading and digesting of different representations of characters, a new understanding of the text and the conventions and idiosyncrasy used to write it is gained. Quite separate from these layers of textual representation there is an interpretative layer that might be thought to hover over the positional layer; in this layer connections or disconnections between similar or different characters are established and investigations of characters and their contexts is conducted.
Character Database The model developed here relies on a database of characters. In this database, relations between characters, their occurrences within the text and among groups of characters are registered. The groupings of the characters can be organized according to different properties of the characters, thus allowing the researcher to built sets of characters similar in its phonetic, semantic or visual properties. Since the relation to the occurrence of the character in the text is maintained, these relations are never thought to be abstract and generic, but are specific to the text under investigation.
Information in the database is held in two parts. This serves as a backdrop for a specific database, which records the relations as they are observed in the text. This information is thus specific to the text it was developed with and the records of the database are always tied to the context the information was abstracted from. Nevertheless, as the number of texts processed with this system increases, and information held for these texts in the databases is aggregated, it is hoped that more general information on the Chinese writing system and its development can be 18 gained, which are not available at the moment.
This precludes then of course any statistical base that might be used as a guidance in developing such encoded character sets. The results of work using systems such as the one developed here could serve as a guidance for the future development of such character sets. Digital Editions of Premodern Chinese Texts The database connects the specific instance of the character, which is registered not with a character code, but with the location of the character within the text, with a generic identifier that is, an encoded representation of the character, if such a representation is available in the encoded character set.
If no such representation is available, a private character will be created in order to allow computational processing and representation of this character. In such cases, structural information about the character, as well as an image cut from the digital facsimile is added to the record for this character. If a suitable representation can be found within the almost character codes registered in Unicode, there might still be slight differences in appearance that can't be accounted for using the standard glyphs present in the operating system of the used computer. In such cases, and whenever a doubt about this character arises, an image cut from the facsimile representation of the text will be added to the record.
The database can thus also be seen as connecting the digital facsimile representation and the transcribed representation of the text. It is by far the largest anthology of premodern Daoist texts and an indispensable source for research on Daoism in the Ming and Qing period fourteenth to late nineteenth century.
Although the collection is chiefly derived from the Ming Canon, it contains more than texts that are not included there and thus is undoubtedly the most valuable collection of Daoist literature of the late imperial period. It features texts on neidan or inner alchemy, cosmology, philosophy, ritual, precepts, commentaries on Buddhist, Confucian and Daoist classics, hagiographic, topographic, epigraphic and literary works, and much else. This was started by the late Monica Esposito with the help of Mugitani Kunio and Christian Wittern, with the aim to investigate the origin of the collection, but also create a new critical electronic edition and develop the tools for 19 exploring all aspects of its content.
Due to the untimely passing away of Dr. Monica Esposito in March , the project has seen a reassessment and will be continued under the leadership of Lai Chi-tim and in close collaboration with the Centre of Daoist Studies at the Chinese University in Hong Kong. One avenue that might provide new light in this controversy is the establishing of a stemma of existing textual witnesses.
This should provide an answer to this question. However, a close reading and comparing of the existing witnesses is required, as well as a method to computationally compare these versions and calculate the respective closeness of individual witnesses. Editing Environment The editing environment has been realized as a Web application that can be used from any compatible browser, anywhere on the Internet. One of the reasons for choosing this platform was to be able to allow collaborative editing in a distributed environment, another was the hope to use this interface either directly, or at least most of it for a web- based publication of the texts.
In Django terms, there are two applications, 'textcoll' for holding the textual 20 Zhao Digital Editions of Premodern Chinese Texts content and 'chardb' for the character database; these two are glued together with a front- end called 'md'. One of the difficult tasks at the outset was to model the text collection, 21 which has been done in the following tables : Tablename Kind of Information Relations Work Title of the work, date and other information Edition Information about the edition, editor, Work publication details TextPage Page number, graphical image of the page, Edition, TextChar serial number of the first character, number of characters TextLine Line number, serial number of the first TextPage, TextChar character, number of characters TextChar Serial number of character, associated extra TextLine, Edition, 22 information , Unicode value of the character, TextChar, serial number of previous and next character Interpunction As can be seen, there is in principle a hierarchical relationship from the Work through Edition, TextPage and TextLine down to the TextChar table, which holds all the information related to the character at this position.
It goes without saying that this incurs a tremendous overhead for the storage and processing of a simple text, but it should be kept in mind that this is the equivalent to a raster electron microscope, which tries to study the atomic units of a text, so there has to be some effort for isolating and handling these atomic units.
There are some anomalies in the hierarchy, which are for the convenience of processing, which are that through the serial numbers of the first character on pages and lines the TextPage and TextLine tables are linked also to the TextChar table, which also has some internal links to the previous and following character position.
Any character that spans more than one position in the grid, as well as talismans, outlines of movements in rituals or similar material that falls out of this simplistic model for the layout of a text is treated as a graphic outside of the textual flow. In addition to these tables representing the text and allowing the modeling of its digital representation, there are a few other tables necessary for holding information about the text structure and content, as follows: 21 Only tables and information relevant to this discussion are shown, implementation details are ignored to keep the table simple.
This does include the possibility to add additional information, for example in the case of space characters that are used honorifically before names. Interpunction, except for space that is already present in the source text, is held in a separate table, linked to the text from the TextChar; besides the character used to represent the interpunction, the position 23 24 relative to the character and a category is recorded.
Additional properties can be set on Variant and CharGroup. The modeling of semantic is currently done through the definition in the Unihan table; the sound is modeled through the Pinyin table. This is provisional and is awaiting a more thorough solution. It requires an account in the web application. Upon login, the user will be presented with the last page visited before leaving the system, like in Figure 6.
The initially visible screen space is divided into three parts, at the right is a page as digital facsimile of the text, in the center pane is a transcribed version of this same page, while the left pane holds some administrative functions: There is information about the current page, the user including a logout button and a possibility to 23 This is given as one of eight compass positions with the character in question at the center, numbered clockwise and starting in the 'East', that is, after the character. Digital Editions of Premodern Chinese Texts look at a change log , in the second part is a panel for navigating the text collection and finally the bottom left has a multifunction panel for showing additional information and perform other tasks on this text page.
Figure 6: The web application interface for establishing the source text The main functions for interacting with the text however are not visible here. Most editing actions are performed by clicking or selecting text and through the dialog boxes that pop up following such an action. Figure 7 shows an example of this popup window, in this case the fourth character position in the second line has been clicked, as a visual feedback to remember which character position is the target of the actions taken in this dialog, the character in this position is highlighted.
The new window that opened gives in the top line the TextLine of this position, the character and then a number of input boxes. By providing a different character and selecting a different edition, the user can associate a new reading for another witness of the text, or give a different character to be used in the JYE edition. If the correction or replacement is occurring several times, the scope for this action can be set in the third selection box to be either valid for the current character, for the whole page, or even for the remaining part of the 27 text.
Below this line, there are four tabs for further action or inspection; by default it 26 The conventions for identifying the edition here is constructed as follows: Currently, there are two edition groups, indicated by CK and YP. The actual edition from within the group is then indicated in the second part of the sigle, in this case it is the Kaozheng reprint of the Chongkan edition CK-KZ.
An exception to this scheme is the new regularized edition created here, which will be indicated as JYE. Among other things, the number of occurrences of the character here are given and images of the character as it has been cut from the text. The main part gives additional information about the character, including 28 pronunciation and definition according to the Unihan database. More important however, for the present context, is the ability to maintain character relations here. For all characters in this group, the Unicode code-point, number of occurrences in the DZJY, as well as definition and pronunciation is given.
Characters can be added to groups or deleted from groups, or new groups created as necessary, thus allowing to model this information exactly as is needed for this text collection. In addition to that, to assist the user in distinguishing characters that might be mistaken for each other, it is also possible to register characters to the system which are not cognates of the current character.
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