The Courts established thereunder are as under:. Under the many statutes such as the Maharashtra Public Trusts Act, and the laws relating to the Intellectual Properties etc. The Principal District Judge has general control over all the Civil Courts and their establishments within the District. The District Courts have the appellate jurisdiction to entertain Appeals from the decrees and orders from the Civil Courts as provided in the Civil Courts Act.
The appellate jurisdiction of the District Judge is confined to a decree or order passed in suits or proceedings, the value or subject matter of which does not exceed to rupees one crore;. The jurisdiction of a Civil Judge Senior Division extends to all the original suits and proceedings of civil nature irrespective of the value of its subject matter Section 24 of the Civil Courts Act. The jurisdiction of a Civil Judge Junior Division extends to all the original suits and proceedings of civil nature wherein subject matter does not exceed its amount or value of Rs.
The jurisdiction of the Courts of Small Cause is confined to suits between landlords and tenants as well as licensors and licensees. Certain categories of money suits lie in the Courts of Small Cause. The Court of Sessions has Appellate Jurisdiction against the orders of conviction and acquittal in some cases passed by the learned Magistrates. Moreover, the said Court has revisional jurisdiction against the orders of the Magistrates. As far as the Judicial Magistrates of the First Class are concerned, as per Sub-section 2 of Section 29 of the CrPC, the Judicial Magistrates of the First Class and the Metropolitan Magistrates are empowered to pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or of fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees, or both.
The Courts of Magistrates of the second class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or of fine not exceeding five thousand rupees, or of both. Under Sub-section 2 of Section 17 , a power is conferred on this Court to appoint any Metropolitan Magistrate to be an Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate who can exercise such powers of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate as this Court may direct.
A Chief Judicial Magistrate as provided in Sub-section 1 of Section 29 of the CrPC may pass any sentence authorized by law except the sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years. The same is the power of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate. There is another category of Courts which can fall in the category of Criminal Courts.
There are Special Criminal Courts under the various statutes. It is not the Court of Ordinary Original Civil Jurisdiction for the City of Mumbai, but it exercises the jurisdiction to entertain civil suits of which the value or subject matter does not exceed the sum of Rupees one crore. Section reads thus:. In almost all the Districts, the powers of the Tribunal have been conferred on the District Judges.
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Under Clause c of Section 9 , there is a provision to establish a Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum for short "District Forum" which is required to be established in each District of the State. The jurisdiction of the District Forum is governed by Section 11 of the said Act of which reads thus:.
A person who is or has been qualified for the post of a District Judge is the President of the District Forum. There are two other members of a District Forum. The State Commission has original jurisdiction which is governed by 17 of the said Act of which reads thus:. Apart from the Original Jurisdiction, there is a jurisdiction vesting in the State Commission of entertaining an Appeal under Section 15 of the said Act of against the orders made by District Fora. Clause b of Sub-section 1 of Section 17 also confers revisional jurisdiction on the State Commission.
Apart from the revisional jurisdiction, under Section 17A , there is a power vesting in the State Commission to transfer complaints pending before one District Forum to another District Forum. The State Commission consists of two or more members. Some of the retired District Judges are being regularly appointed as members of the State Commission. As per the information available on the official website Confonet, as of 4th May , 20, cases are pending before the State Commission, out of which 13, are the Appeals under Section Now we turn to the provisions of the Maharashtra Co- operative Societies Act , for short "the said Act of ".
Section A thereof deals with the constitution of Co-operative Courts. It provides for establishing one or more Co-operative Courts for the adjudication of disputes under Section 91 or Section of the said Act of Section 91 confers wide powers on the Co-operative Courts as provided in Sub-section 1 , which reads thus:.
Section 97 of the said Act of provides for an Appeal against any decision of the Co-operative Court before the Co-operative Appellate Court. Sub-section 9 confers the power on the Co-operative Appellate Court to entertain a revision against the orders of the Co-operative Court. As far as the qualifications for appointment of the Judges of Co-operative Courts and Co-operative Appellate Court are concerned, the Rule A of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Rules, for short "the said Rules of " provides that no person shall ordinarily be eligible for appointment as a Judge of a Co-operative Court, unless he is holding or has held a judicial office not lower in rank than that of Civil Judge Junior Division.
As far as the Co-operative Appellate Court is concerned, under Rule of the said Rules of , a person who is qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the High Court or is holding or has held a judicial office not lower in rank than that of the District Judge is eligible to become a President of the Maharashtra State Co- operative Appellate Court.
Any person holding the said qualification or who has held office not lower in rank than that of the Joint Registrar of Co-operative Societies for not less than one year or a person who is enrolled as an Advocate or who is qualified to enroll as an Advocate and either i has held office not lower in rank than that of Deputy Secretary to Government for not less than three years, or ii who in the opinion of the Government possesses good knowledge and experience of co- operative law and practice. During the last several years, a consistent practice has been followed to appoint an in-service District Judge as the President of the Co-operative Appellate Court.
As narrated earlier, as on 28 th April , 33, cases are pending in the Family Courts in the State. Before we deal with the issues, a brief reference to the facts of individual cases will have to be made. There are consequential prayers made such as making inventory of fire prevention equipment and machinery in the Court Complexes and providing fire extinguishing equipment and fire preventing machinery to the Courts. Apart from relying upon the report, attention of the Court is invited to the various provisions of the Fire Prevention Act.
The main contention raised by the Petitioner who is a citizen of the City of Mumbai is that the provisions of the Fire Prevention Act are not being implemented especially in relation to the Courts. He has invited the attention of the Court to the fact that there was a serious fire which broke out in Mantralaya. The first prayer in the Petition is for issuing a writ of mandamus directing the Respondents to strictly implement the provisions of the Fire Prevention Act in all the Courts in Maharashtra. There are consequential directions sought against the Mumbai Municipal Corporation to ensure that sufficient infrastructure is made available for protecting the Courts and Court record.
Our attention is invited to the fact that there is always a threat of fire to the valuable Court record. Writ Petition No. In fact, on behalf of the Tribunal, the State Government was moved for allotment of premises in possession of the State Commission under the said Act of By a communication dated 12th January issued by the State Government, the said request was rejected.
There is an additional affidavit filed by the Petitioner on 6th October giving figures of pendency and setting out the requirements of the said Motor Accident Claims Tribunal. An area of sq. A liberty was granted to make a fresh representation to the State Government for grant of more space. The said order was passed in the aforesaid Writ Petition filed by the present Petitioner.
The said premises was accordingly handed over to the Co-operative Courts. It is pointed out that by the orders dated 30 th August and 27th June issued by the State Government, premises having area of sq. D building were ordered to be allotted to the Co-operative Courts. However, the possession of both the premises has not been handed over as the same have been occupied by the Departments of the Government. Reliance is placed on the correspondence made in that behalf. There was a further order passed on 24 th January by the State Government directing allotment of an area of 3, sq.
By an order dated 2 nd January , an area of 7, sq. The said order records that this area of 7, sq. Thus the additional area of 4, sq. The said letter records that as per a decision taken in the meeting dated 10th March , the premises on the ground floor of the Old Secretariat Building, which was earlier used by the Co-operative Appellate Court shall be used as a record section of the Co-operative Appellate Court.
It appears that a decision was taken vide Government Resolution dated 22nd May to allot the said premises of the Co- operative Appellate Court on the ground floor of the Old Secretariat Building to the State Commission. Reliance is placed on an order dated 29 th May issued by the President of the Co-operative Appellate Court posting seven staff members mentioned therein to sit in the Old Secretariat Building premises. By a letter dated 2 nd July , the President of the Co- operative Appellate Court informed the Registrar Judicial-II that there are serious difficulties in the way of parting with possession of the premises in the Old Secretariat Building to the State Commission.
He stated that if the possession thereof is required to be parted with, an area equivalent to 7, to 8, sq. Public Interest Litigation No. In these Petitions, the Division Bench of this Court by an order dated 21st September passed a detailed order directing the State Government to hand over the possession of the area of sq. The Division Bench directed that the record of the disposed of cases of the Co-operative Courts shall be maintained in the same premises by the State Commission till the record is scanned and the scanned files are handed over to the Co-operative Court.
The State Government was directed to transfer the files to some other premises in Navi Mumbai or nearby Districts. It appears that the present Petitioner filed an Application for intervention in the said two Petitions and prayed for vacating the order dated 21st September We must note here that extensive amendment was carried out to this Petition. Earlier, the prayers have been deleted and a writ of mandamus is prayed for directing the State Government to provide atleast an area of 25, sq.
A direction is sought to bring the staff of the Co-operative Courts and the Co-operative Appellate Courts under the administrative control of the President of the Co-operative Appellate Court. A prayer was made to provide additional staff. On 15th October , the Petitioners have filed affidavit of their Secretary setting out the requirements of the Co-operative Courts and the Co- operative Appellate Courts.
The main prayer in this Petition under Article of the Constitution of India is for issuing a writ of mandamus directing the State of Maharashtra to provide adequate space to the State Commission. There is also a prayer for directing the State Government to create additional six Benches of the State Commission. There are diverse prayers made in this Petition. Some of the prayers have been worked out.
Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud
While discussing the issues raised, we propose to deal with various compliances made on the basis of the interim orders passed by this Court from time to time in this Petition. We have already made a reference to the order dated 21 st September passed in Public Interest Litigation No. The prayer made in both the Applications for intervention was allowed by an order dated 13 th October By the order dated 13 th October , it was directed that the possession of the premises in the Old Custom House shall not be handed over to the State Commission.
The said order of stay was vacated on 20th October The first prayer is for issuing a writ of mandamus directing the State Government to take steps for implementation of the recommendations which are annexed as Annexures 2, 3 4 and 5 in respect of the salary of the members of the State Commission. The second prayer which is added by way of amendment is of quashing the Government Resolution dated 15th December This Petition is filed by the Petitioner who is a full time member of the State Commission.
There is a Civil Application No. The prayer in this Petition under Article of the Constitution of India is firstly for issuing a writ of mandamus directing the State Government to pay equal salary to all the members of the District Forum on the basis of the doctrine of "equal pay for equal work". The second challenge in this Petition is to the constitutional validity of Rule There is a detailed additional affidavit is filed by the Petitioner based on the subsequent increase in the salary for pointing out the alleged discrimination.
The first prayer in this PIL is for directing the State Government to issue an order of separation of cadres and recruit suitable Registrar and other staff for smooth and effective functioning of District Fora as well as the State Commission. The Petitioner has referred to various Government Resolutions. The Petitioners are relying upon the resolution adopted in the Conference of Hon'ble Ministers along with the Secretaries of the Consumer Affairs Departments of the States as well as the Union Territories which was also attended by the Presidents of the respective State Commissions.
The said meeting was held on 15 th March in which several resolutions were adopted. One of the resolutions which was unanimously adopted was to the effect that the pay scales of the full time members of the State Commission and the District Fora should be as applicable to a Joint Secretary and Director, respectively in the Central Secretariat of the Government of India. It was also resolved that till the pay scales are brought to the aforesaid level, the State Governments should adopt the pay and perquisites fixed by the Governments of Kerala or Andhra Pradesh or Haryana.
It was also resolved to adopt the amounts recommended by the Committee headed by Dr. Shenoy for payment of conveyance allowance and daily allowance per sitting for the part time members of the State Commission and part time members of the District Fora.
The grievance is that the said resolution which was approved in the subsequent meeting held on 14th and 15th March has not been implemented. In the said meeting, a resolution was passed reiterating the aforesaid decision taken in the meeting held on 15 th March The grievance made in this Petition is about the non-implementation of both the Resolutions. The issues raised therein have been set out in Paragraph 2 of the order dated 7th March The Paragraph 2 of the order dated 7 th March reads thus It is stated that considering gravity of situation, it is necessary to take up the matter on the judicial side by initiating suo motu action for espousing the cause of the general public.
Though the scope of this suo motu petition is very wide, for the time being we direct the State Government to consider the aspects set out under the heading 1 to 7 in the said Note. One of the issues is about reservation of 19 Plots in the development plan in Mumbai for the purpose of judiciary. Apart from the response of the State, the response of the Mumbai Municipal Corporation is also necessary. We, therefore, direct the appropriate Officer of the State Government to file a reply on the 7 points highlighted in the said Note.
The reply shall be filed on or before 17th April Reply must deal with the all the factual aspects set out in the Note. Reply will also contain action taken plan. Note dated 14th December submitted by the Registrar General of this Court reads thus:. Some of the prayers and issues made in this PIL may be covered by this Judgment. The main issue raised in this Petition is as regards the implementation of the ideal Judge-Population Ratio. There are directions sought to make available adequate number of Judges in all the Courts in the State.
Thus, broadly speaking, the issues raised can be categorized into the following categories Detailed submissions have been made from time to time by Shri A. Kumbhakoni, the learned senior counsel who was appointed in PIL No. He was ably assisted by Shri Borkar, the learned counsel. We may note here that when we requested Shri Kumbhakoni to assist the Court on the issues concerning infrastructures of the Civil and Criminal Courts, he disclosed to the Court that he was earlier representing the Government of Maharashtra as a Special Counsel in the Petitions dealing with the infrastructure of the State Commission and District Fora.
On this aspect, while dealing with the infrastructure of the Courts in the State, the law has been laid down by this Court in Public Interest Litigation No. Paragraphs 4 to 9 of the said Judgment read thus:. However, as far as functioning of the courts i. The Apex Court also relied upon its earlier decision in the case of Hussainara Khatoon v. The Apex Court in the said decision observed that the Government cannot plead financial or administrative inability to avoid its constitutional obligation to provide speedy trial to an accused. What is more important is the categorical declaration made by the Apex Court that the plea of financial limitations or constraints cannot be a valid excuse to avoid the performance of the constitutional duty of the Government to provide a proper judicial infrastructure.
After having considered all the relevant factors that this Court submits proposals to the State Government to establish new Courts. Only by providing lands for establishing Courts, the State Government does not discharge its constitutional obligation. It is an obligation of the State Government to provide all the necessary infrastructure to the newly established as well as the existing Courts, to the judicial officers, to the members of the staff as well as to the members of the Bar.
The infrastructure has to be provided in such a manner that the Courts are able to function effectively. The infrastructure to be provided has to be consistent with the concept of dignity and decorum of the Court. The speedy disposal of cases in consonance with Article 39A of the Constitution of India cannot be achieved unless adequate number of Courts are established and adequate and proper infrastructure is provided to all Court premises.
A Judicial notice about lack of proper infrastructure to the Courts in the State has been taken by this Court in the case of Partur Advocates' Bar Association v. State of Maharashtra and other 6.
bombay high court in india
Paragraph 13 of the said decision reads thus There are large number of Courts in the State which are housed in privately owned rented properties. At many stations, there are no judicial quarters available and wherever they are available, the same are not adequate in number. In a city like Mumbai, the judicial officers do not get quarters immediately after they are posted and, therefore, they are required to stay in a make-shift hostel facility at Small Causes Court at Mumbai.
In other bigger Cities in the State , even such transit facility is not available. Most of the Taluka and District Courts lack elementary infrastructure. In fact, in large number of PILs pending in the Court wherein the issues of lack of infrastructure has been raised, this Court has issued directions from time to time to the State Government to provide funds and or infrastructure. In many cases, this Court was required to issue writs directing release of funds for construction of Court buildings.
In many cases, the Court premises which are situated in rented properties require repairs but the landlords are refusing to co-operate and permit repairs. The Judiciary has no financial independence in the sense that for carrying out even a small work of repairs or for buying furniture, the Courts have to seek sanction of the State Government for release of funds. The orders passed by this Court shows that it is difficult to get funds from the Government even for basic needs of the Court. Various orders passed by this Court in PILs show that from time to time, this Court was required to issue directions to the State Government for providing elementary facilities to the litigants such as availability of washrooms, water purifiers, water filters, etc.
Many buildings of the Courts are being constructed only after a writ of mandamus is issued by this Court for the release of funds. For establishment of new Courts, land and buildings are required for the Courts and judicial quarters. Additional Judges are required and additional posts of staff are required to be created by the State Government.
Additional furniture, computers, printers etc are required. It is true that there are cases of departure from the said decision. But, they are only by way exceptions. That is the reason why there are inherent limitations on the implementation of the ideal concept of the justice at door-steps. Act , the Co-operative Courts and the Co-operative Appellate Court established under the said Act of , the State Commission as well as the District Fora established under the said Act of and Labour as well as Industrial Courts are also a part of the legal system in the State.
The aforesaid Tribunals are vested with the power to decide a lis between the parties. In the case of State of Maharashtra v. Labour Law Practioners' Association7 , the Apex Court held that the Labour and Industrial Courts decide disputes which are of Civil nature and they perform judicial function. Their duty and function is to dispense justice to common man.
Needless to say that the complaints under the said Act of are required to be expeditiously dealt with and decided by the State Commission and the District Fora. That is all the more true in case of the claims before the Motor Accident Claims Tribunals. It follows that the facilities such as adequate remuneration and allowances, residential accommodation if required as per respective service conditions , transport arrangement, etc.
The members of the Bar need adequate Bar rooms with necessary facilities. As held in the aforesaid decisions, the financial constraint is no ground to deny infrastructure. It is in light of this legal position that this group of matters will have to be decided. In the said decision, the Apex Court has dealt with the reasons for judicial delay. The Apex Court observed that the access to justice is also a fundamental right guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution of India.
Mainly the Apex Court was dealing with the issue of inadequate strength of Judges. In Paragraphs 7 and 8 of the said decision, the Apex Court dealt with the issue of adequate number of Judicial Officers. The said paragraphs read thus In a letter dated 2 April , the then Prime Minister of India also accepted the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India to double the existing number of courts.
When this issue was taken up at the Joint Conference of Chief Ministers and Chief Justices in it was resolved to create new posts of judicial officers with requisite staff and infrastructure. In order to address the issue of arrears, a policy decision was taken by the Union government to constitute fast track courts and funds were allocated under the Eleventh Finance Commission for a period of five years When the issue of the discontinuation of fast-track courts came up, this Court in Brij Mohan Lal v.
Union of India  held that the policies of the State should not derogate from undermining judicial independence and if a policy was counter- productive or liable to increase the case load, the court intervene judicially. Though this Court desisted from interfering with the policy decision in regard to discontinuing fast track courts, keeping in mind the huge pendency of cases, a direction was issued for the creation of additional posts in the district judiciary to the extent of ten per cent of the total regular cadre within a stipulated period.
The judgment refers to the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission for allocation of funds for the Courts. After 31st January , these Petitions were adjourned from time to time to enable the learned Government Pleader to take instructions. This Court expressed a prima facie view that the number of members of the Tribunals which are the subject matter of this group of Petitions will have to be also determined on the basis of the principles adopted by the Apex Court.
We may note here that on the last date of hearing, the learned Government Pleader made a statement before this Court that according to the State Government, the formula laid down by the Apex Court will apply only to the traditional Courts like Civil and Criminal Courts and not to the Tribunals. The formula which was accepted by the Apex Court which is a part of the interim report submitted by the Chairman of the NCMSC is basically evolved to reduce the arrears before the traditional Courts both Civil and Criminal.
Some of the Tribunals deal with the action under the Law of Torts. Therefore, there is no reason why the interim report of NCMSC should not be taken into consideration for calculating the member strength of Tribunals. Firstly, we are dealing with the Petitions filed seeking implementation of certain provisions of the said Act of It was enacted to provide better protection to the interests of consumers and for making provision for establishment of Consumer Councils and other Authorities for settlement of consumer disputes and for matters connected therewith.
As far as the State Consumer Protection Council is concerned, the constitution thereof is defined under Section 7 of the said Act of , which reads thus:. Section 8 provides that the object of every State Council shall be to promote and protect within the State the rights of the consumers laid down in clauses a to f of Section 6 of the said Act of Objects of the Central Council. As specified in Section 8-B , the object of every District Council is to promote and protect within the District the rights of the consumers laid down in clauses a to f of Section 6.
Thus, the State Council and District Councils are expected to discharge very important functions. The essential object of establishing the said Councils is to protect the very important rights of consumers which are specified in Clauses a to f of Section 6 of the said Act of The duty of the State as well as District Councils is to promote and protect the rights of the consumers.
For the sake of convenience, we may make a reference to the definition of "Consumer" under Clause d of Section 2 of the said Act of , which reads thus:. The definition of "Consumer" is very wide. The object of the said Act of is to provide protection to all those who fall in the wide definition of "Consumer". A District Forum also plays a very important role considering the jurisdiction vested in it under Section 11 , which reads thus For the purposes of provisions of Sections and of the Indian Penal Code, the proceedings before the District Forum and State Commission shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding.
The powers which can be exercised by the District Forum while dealing with and disposing of the complaints are listed in Section 14 , which reads thus Provided further that the amount so obtained shall be credited in favour of such person and utilized in such manner as may be prescribed;. The State Commission has original jurisdiction as well. Section 17 of the said Act of which deals with the jurisdiction of the State Commission, reads thus Sub-section 1-B of Section 16 lays down that the jurisdiction, powers and authority of the State Commission may be exercised by the Benches thereof.
Section B provides that the State Commission shall ordinarily function in the State Capital but may perform its functions at such other places as the State Government may, in consultation with the State Commission, notify in the Official Gazette, from time to time. Section 15 of the said Act of confers the appellate powers, which reads thus There is an elaborate provision made for enforcement of the orders of the District Forum and State Commission.
Section 25 confers the said power which reads thus:. If there is a failure or omission on the part of a trader or a person against whom a complaint is made or the Complainant, such a person shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one month but which may extend to three years, or with fine which shall not be less than two thousand rupees. Thus, very comprehensive powers have been conferred on the State Commission as well as District Forum. Not only that there are powers to issue directions as provided in Sections 14 and there are sufficient powers conferred to enforce those directions in accordance with Section Therefore, for enforcement of the rights of the consumers, the District Fora at the District Level and the State Commission at State Level play a pivotal role.
Now, we may make a reference to the relevant Rules framed under the said Act of We are referring to the Maharashtra Consumer Protection Rules, for short "the said Rules of ". Rule 3 is relevant for deciding the controversy raised in some of the Petitions, which reads thus Salaries and other allowances and terms and conditions of the President and other Members of the District Forum- 1 The President of the District Forum shall receive salary at the minimum stage, of the District Judge appointed in the State Judicial Service, if appointed on whole time basis.
However, if on a part time basis, i. Such of the President who is appointed after selection from the retired District Judges, shall get his pay fixed as per rule 2 of the Maharashtra Civil Services Pension Rules, Deputation allowance in addition to pay and allowances shall be payable to such of the President who is appointed from the cadre of sitting District Judges. The members of the District Forum, if appointed on whole-time basis, shall be paid a consolidated honorarium of Rs. For attending sittings of the Forum on per sitting basis a sitting fee of Rs.
Under special circumstances such permission may be obtained post facto, however, strictly within thirty days from the first day of such absence, failing which he shall be treated as absent;. In absence of both the members of the District Forum, or if none of the member is qualified to hold the office of the President, the President or any senior-most in order of appointment member of the District Forum of adjacent district, qualified to be appointed as a President shall discharge the functions of the President of the District Forum;.
Provided further that the Government shall, by order specify the District which shall be treated as adjacent District for such purposes;. Provided also that where there are more than one Forum in the District, the President of any other Forum, in the District or any Member of any other Forum in the District, who is qualified to be appointed as a President shall discharge the functions of the President;. Provided also that, where the President or Member of the adjoining District Forum attends the work of the District Forum such President or the Member shall be paid traveling allowance and daily allowance in accordance with these Rules.
Explanation - If the Members, are not eligible under clause a of sub-section 1 of Section 10 of the Act, such Members shall attend the work of the Forum like giving of dates for hearing of complaints, accepting applications, complaints, etc. Every such work shall be deemed to be a sitting. However, they shall not hear and dispose of the complaints. It shall be the duty of the Registrar and the other Members of the staff to assist the Members in discharging such functions.
Council as well as the District Consumer Protection Councils There is a chart tendered by the learned Government Pleader which also deals with the compliance. Under the Government Resolution dated 19 th October , the guidelines relating to non-official members of the District State as well as the District Consumer Protection Council have been notified. We may note here that there were objections raised by some of the Petitioners to certain nominations of the members.
The State Government has accepted most of the objections and have taken remedial measures. The term of the State Consumer Protection Council is of three years which will come to an end on 2nd September In the affidavit of Shri Udhav D. Walunj, a specific statement has been made in Clause 2 trhat the District Consumer Protection Councils have been established in all the Districts in the State.
We accept the said statement.
Judges on the 377 Bench, Can We Be Friends?
We propose to issue directions to ensure that the meetings of the State Council are held atleast once in every quarter. We also propose to issue a direction to the State Council to exercise power under Sub-Rule 5 of Rule 2B of the said Rules of by constituting working groups so that the specific issues concerning the rights of the consumers can be addressed properly.
We also propose to issue direction to the State Government to start the process of reconstituting the State Council on or before 3 rd June as the term of the State Council is to expire on 2 nd September Wordy and relaxed, but this volume is still a quick read. This would be a commentary to more complete and contemporary works. It's brevity is a blessing - he doesn't seem to waste too much time with the than current higher criticism issues, and a curse - he doesn't even address and the so important eternal security issue.
Probably worth a quick look at your passage of you are preaching from Hebrews.
H C G Moule is a brilliant author. He was the Bishop of Durham UK in addition to being the Queen's pastor; and an orator that I wish could have been recorded for posterity. Thank you to the volunteers who converted his written work to digital format. Any books by this author are good. This is a theological commentary on the text of Scripture, specifically the book of Hebrews.
It was helpful reference for developing sermon material. Still reading. Hebrews is a book that many scholars have misrepresented but this booklet offers roads out of dead ends. This is great!
Glimpses of Legal Legends: John Duncan Inverarity – Hammurabi Tablet
I am enjoying this book. It has helped me to understand when studying the writings of the Apostle Pauls letters to the churches. See all 13 reviews. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Alexander Maclaren. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians. Thomas Charles Edwards. The Gospel of Luke, An Exposition.
Charles Rosenbury. Understanding the Scriptures. He was offered the post of Advocate General and elevation from the Bar to the Bench. However he refused the offers and remained a distinguished independent Advocate all his life. Inverarity was famous for his forensic skills and fearless arguments. His arguments were filled with wit and humor. He would never lose his temperament whatever be the situation. In one case while he was appearing before Justice Candy he was continuously mispronouncing an Indian name. Candy within some time got irritated and allowed Inverarity to pronounce the name the way he wanted to.
Inverarity was blessed with photographic memory. He would remember every point of his point alongwith dates, after reading a brief at a glance. He would never take his notes on his brief. Once Sir Chimanlal Setalvad was preparing for arguments in appeal in a case, of which the trial was conducted by Inverarity.
- The Beach Diaries 2011.
- The English Civil War.
- The Meetings of Extremes in Contemporary Philosophy;
Setalvad was searching for a statement of a particular witness out of the evidence of pages. Inverarity was passing by when he saw Setalvad and came to him. On being asked by Setalvad, Inverarity not only told him the page number of the statement but also the particular part of the statement which Setalvad was searching for.
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